Morphology – the internal structure of the meaningful units within words and the relationships among words in a language; the study of word formation patterns.

  • boat – one morpheme
  • boats – two morphemes (base word boat + suffix -s (more than one))
  • salamander – one morpheme
  • singing – two morphemes (base word sing + suffix -ing (happening now))
  • construct – two morphemes (prefix con (together) + root struct (to build))

Morpheme – the smallest meaningful linguistic unit;  A morpheme may be a base or root word (e.g., child; graph), a suffix (e.g., -ing in thinking), or a prefix (e.g., un in unbuckle).

Base word – a word (morpheme) to which a prefix or a suffix is added (e.g., whole in unwholesome); A base word is a plain word with nothing added to it.  A base word can stand alone.
"Base Word (Hand Signals) on YouTube

Combining Form – Greek combining forms carry meaning and can be combined to form words – auto and graph in autograph or bio in biosphere

Root – a morpheme to which a suffix or prefix can be added; usually Latin roots are morphemes that cannot stand alone as words in English (i.e., struct, ject, vis)

Prefix – a morpheme attached to the beginning of a base word that changes the meaning of the word (e.g., re in rework)

Suffix – a morpheme attached to the end of a base word that creates a word with a different form, use (e.g., -s in cats, -ing in numbering), or meaning (careful, careless).
"Suffix (Hand Signals) on YouTube

Derivative – a word created by adding a prefix or a suffix to a base word
"Derivative (Hand Signals) on YouTube